Sahotra Sarkar: Papers


2019


Sarkar, S. 2019. “What Should ‘Biodiversity’ Be?” In Casetta, E., Marques da Silva, J. and Vecchi, D. From Assessing to Conserving Biodiversity: Conceptual and Practical Challenges. Cham: Springer, pp. 375 -400.


SarkarS., Zlojutro, A., Khan, K., and Gardner, L. 2019. “Measles Resurgence in the USA: How International Travel Compounds Vaccine Resistance.” The Lancet Infectious Diseases 18: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30231-2.


Monroy-Gamboa, A. G., Briones-Salas, M. A., Sarkar, S., and Sánchez-Cordero, V. 2019. “Terrestrial Vertebrates as Surrogates for Selecting Conservation Areas in a Biodiversity Hotspot in Mexico.” Conservation Science and Practice e12: https://doi.org/10.1002/csp2.12.


Sarkar, S. 2019. “The Argument from Design: Biological Complexity and Interdependence.” In Koterski, J. W. and Oppy, G. Eds. Theism and Atheism: Opposing Arguments in Philosophy. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, pp. 365 -371.



2018


Sarkar, S. 2018. “Researchers Hit Roadblock with Gene Drives.” BioScience 68: 474 -480.


Sarkar, S. 2018. “Deliberative Decisions and Formal Multicriteria Analysis: Addressing Norton’s Skepticism.” In Sarkar, S. and Minteer, B. Eds. 2018. A Sustainable Philosophy: The Work of Bryan Norton. Cham: Springer, pp. 213 -236.


Sarkar, S. and Minteer, B. E. 2018. “Introduction.” In Sarkar, S. and Minteer, B. Eds. 2018. A Sustainable Philosophy: The Work of Bryan Norton. Cham: Springer, 1 -5.


Sarkar, S., Love, A., and Wimsatt, W. C. 2018. “Reductionism in Biology.” In Pritchard, D. Ed.Oxford Bibliographies in Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press, http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195396577/obo-9780195396577-0359.xml.



2017


Sarkar, S. 2017. “Haldane’s Causes of Evolution and the Modern Synthesis in Evolutionary Biology.” Journal of Genetics 96: 753 -763.


Sarkar, S. 2017. “What Is Threatening Monarchs?BioScience 67: 1080.


Sarkar, S., Sánchez-Cordero, V., and  Margules, C. R. 2017. “Systematic Conservation Planning for Aichi Biodiversity Targets.” National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plan (NBSAP) Forum Newsletter 1 (1): http://nbsapforum.net/#read-resource/2532.


Sarkar, S., Dyer, J. S., Margules, C., Ciarleglio, M., Kemp, N., Wong, G., Juhn, D., and Supriatna, J. 2017. “Developing an Objectives Hierarchy for Multi-criteria Decisions on Land Use Options, with a Case Study of Biodiversity Conservation and Forestry Production from Papua, Indonesia.” Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 44: 464 -485.


Bui, C. M., Gardner, L., MacIntyre, R., and Sarkar, S. 2017. “Influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 in China: A Spatial Risk Analysis.” PLoS ONE 12 (4): e0174980. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0174980.


Gardner, L., Chen, N., and SarkarS. 2017. “Vector Status of Aedes Species Determines Geographical Risk of Autochthonous Zika Virus Establishment.” PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 11(3): e0005487. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005487.


Garson, J. Plutynski, A., and Sarkar, S. Eds. 2017. “Introduction.” In Garson, J. Plutynski, A., and Sarkar, S. Eds. 2017. Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Biodiversity. New York: Routledge, pp. 1 -7.


Sarkar, S. 2017. “Approaches to Biodiversity.” In Garson, J. Plutynski, A., and Sarkar, S. Eds. 2017. Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Biodiversity. New York: Routledge, pp. 43 -55.


Sarkar. S. 2017. “Poincaré Reconsidered, One Hundred Years Afterwards: Guest Editor’s Introduction.” HOPOS: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 6: 239 -241.



2016


Sarkar, S. 2016. “Air Travel and Aedes Mosquito-borne Diseases.” In LeMay, M. C. Global Pandemic Threats: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, pp. 160 -165.


Sarkar, S. 2016. “The Zika Crisis: A Result of Neglect.” Phi Kappa Phi Forum 2016 (Winter): 22 -25.


Butt, A. M., Siddique, S., Gardner, L. M., Sarkar, S., Lancelot, R., and Qamar, R. 2016. “Zika Virus in Pakistan: The Tip of the Iceberg?” Lancet Global Health 4: e913 –e914.


Bethmont, A., Bui, C. M., Gardner, L., Sarkar, S., Chugtai, A. A., and MacIntryre, C. R. 2016. “Quantified Degree of Poultry Exposure Differs for Human Cases of Avian Influenza H5N1 and H7N9. Epidemiology and Infection 144: 2633 -2640.


Sarkar. S. and Gardner, L. 2016. “Zika: The Price of Neglect.” Palgrave Communications 2:16060 doi: 10.1057/palcomms.2016.60.


Sarkar, S. 2016. “At One Hundred: The Living Legacy of Francis Crick.” BioScience 66: 437 -438.


Sarkar, S. 2016. “Haldane and Mayr: A Response to Rao and Nanjundiah.” History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 38: 151 -154.


Sarkar, S. 2016. “The Ethics of Gene Drives against Aedes aegypti.” Infectious Disease News 29 (4):11.


Gardner, L., Chen, N. and Sarkar, S. 2016. “Global Risk of Zika Virus Depends Critically on Vector Status of Aedes albopictus.” The Lancet Infectious Diseases 16: 522 -523.



2015


Bui, C., Bethmont, A., Chughtai, A. A., Gardner, L., Sarkar, S., Hassan, S.,  Seale H., and MacIntyre. C. R. 2015. “A Systematic Review of the Comparative Epidemiology of Avian and Human Influenza A H5N1 and H7N9—Lessons and Unanswered Questions.” Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 63: doi: 10.1111/tbed.12327.


Tabery, J. and Sarkar, S. 2015. “R. A. Fisher, Lancelot Hogben, and the ‘Competition’ for the Chair of Social Biology at the London School of Economics in 1930: Correcting the Legend.” Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 69: 437 -446.


Sarkar, S. 2015. “The Genomic Challenge to Adaptationism.” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66: 505 -536.


Wozniak, E. J., Lawrence, G., Gorchakov, R., Alamgir, A. H., Dotson, E., Sissel, B., Sarkar, S., and Murray, K. O. 2015. “The Biology of the Triatomine Bugs Native to South Central Texas and Assessment of the Risk They Pose for Chagas Disease Exposure.” Journal of Parasitology 101: 520 -528.


Gardner, L. and Sarkar, S. 2015. “The Risk of Dengue Spread from the Philippines through International Air Travel.” Transportation Research Record 2501: 25 -30.


Crews, D., Weisberg, S. A. and Sarkar, S. 2015. “Hazards Inherent in Interdisciplinary Behavioral Research.” Frontiers in Zoology 12: S21.


Sarkar, S. 2015. “Nagel on Reduction.” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 53: 43 -56.


Sarkar, S. and Uebel, T. 2015. “Introduction: Formal Epistemology and the Legacy of Logical Empiricism.” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 53: 1 -2.


Margules, C. R., Sayer. J., Boedhihartono, A. K., Makes, D., Sarkar, S., and Supriatna, J. 2015. “Development in Eastern Indonesia: Are There Alternative Approaches?” Taprobanica 7: 201 –211.


Sarkar, S. 2015. “Religion and Science.” In Oppy, G. Ed. Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Philosophy of Religion. New York: Routledge, pp. 402 -415.


Botello, F., Sarkar, S., and Sánchez-Cordero, V. 2015. “Impact of Habitat Loss on Distributions of Terrestrial Vertebrates in a High-biodiversity Region in Mexico.” Biological Conservation 184: 59 -65.



2014


Sarkar, S. 2014. “Lederberg on Bacterial Recombination, Haldane, and Cold War Genetics: An Interview.” History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 36: 280 -288.


Atkinson, S. F., Sarkar, S., Aviña, A., Schuermann, J. A. and Williamson, P. 2014. “A Determination of the Spatial Concordance between Lyme Disease Incidence and Habitat Probability of Its Primary Vector Ixodes scapularis (Black-legged Tick).” Geospatial Health 9: 203 -212.


Sarkar, S. 2014. “The Inevitability of Normative Analysis.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37: 436.


Sarkar, S. 2014. “Biodiversity and Systematic Conservation Planning for the Twenty-first Century: A Philosophical Perspective.” Conservation Science 2: 1 -11.


Garza, M., Feria Arroyo, T. P., Casillas, E. A., Sánchez-Cordero, V., Rivaldi, C. -L., and Sarkar, S. 2014. “Projected Future Distributions of Vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi in North America under Climate Change Scenarios.”  PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 8(5): e2818. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002818.


Sarkar, S. 2014. “Woese on the Received View of Evolution.” RNA Biology 11: 220 -224.


Sarkar, S. 2014. “Formal Darwinism: Some Questions.” Biology and Philosophy 29: 249 -257.


Sarkar, S. 2014. “Environmental Philosophy: Response to Critics.” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences  45: 105 -109.


Sarkar, S. 2014. “Environmental Philosophy: From Theory to Practice.” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences  45: 89 -91.


Sarkar, S. 2014. “Does ‘Information’ Provide a Compelling Framework for a Theory of Natural Selection?: Grounds for Caution.” Philosophy of Science 81: 22 -30.



2013


Sarkar, S. 2013. “Multiple Criteria and Tradeoffs in Environmental Ethics: Comment on ‘Ethics of Species Research and Preservation’ by Rob Irvine.” Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10: 533 -537.


Sarkar, S. 2013. “Carnap and the Compulsions of Interpretation: Reining in the Liberalization of Empiricism.” European Journal for the Philosophy of Science. 3: 353 -372.


Gardner, L. and Sarkar, S. 2013. “A Global Airport-Based Risk Model for the Spread of Dengue Infection via the Air Transport Network.” PLoS ONE 8 (8): e72129. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0072129.


Sarkar, S. 2013. “The Vienna Circle.” In Fastiggi, R. Ed. New Catholic Encyclopedia Supplement 2012-2013: Ethics and Philosophy. Vol. 4. Detroit: Thomson Gale, pp. 612 -613.


Sarkar, S. 2013. “Mayr’s Recollections of Haldane: A Document with Brief Commentary.” History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 35: 269 -280.


Sarkar, S. 2013. “Erwin Schrödinger’s Excursus on Genetics.” In Harman, O. and Dietrich, M. Eds. Outsider Scientists: Routes to Innovation in Biology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 93 -109.


Dimitrov, N., Moffett, A., Morton, D. P., and Sarkar, S. 2013. “Selecting Malaria Interventions: A Top-Down Approach.” Computers & Operations Research 50: 2229 -2240.


Sarkar, S. 2013, “Information in Animal Communication: When and Why Does It Matter?” In Stegmann, U. Ed. Animal Communication Theory: The Information Transfer Debate. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 190 -205.



2012


Atkinson, S. F., Sarkar, S., Aviña, A., Schuermann, J. A. and Williamson, P. 2012. “Modeling Spatial Concordance between Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Disease Incidence and Habitat Probability of Its Vector Dermacentor variabilis (American Dog Tick).” Geospatial Health 7: 91 -100.


Sarkar, S. and Frank, D. M. 2012. “Conservation Biology: Ethical Foundations.” Nature Education 3(5): 3 (http://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/ conservation-biology-ethical-foundations-46518079).


Sarkar, S. 2012. “Complementarity and the Selection of Nature Reserves: Algorithms and the Origins of Conservation Planning, 1980–1995.” Archive for History of Exact Sciences 66: 397 -426.


Illoldi-Rangel, P., Ciarleglio, M., Scheinvar, L., Linaje, M., Sánchez-Cordero, V., and Sarkar, S. 2012. “Opuntia in México: Identifying Priority Areas for Conserving Biodiversity in a Multi-Use Landscape.” PLoS One 7(5): e36650. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036650.


Sarkar, S. 2012. “Complex Genetic Systems and Diseases.” In eLS 2012. Chichester, UK: Wiley. http://www.els.net [DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0005887.pub2].


Gardner, L., Fajardo, D., Waller, S. T., Wang, O., and Sarkar, S.  2012. “A Predictive Spatial Model to Quantify the Risk of Air-Travel-Associated Dengue Importation into the United States and Europe.” Journal of Tropical Medicine 2012: Article ID 103679. DOI: 10.1155/2012/103679.


Illoldi-Rangel, P., Rivaldi, C. –L., Sissel, B., Fryxell, R. T., Gordillo-Pérez, G., Rodríguez-Moreno, A., Williamson, P., Montiel-Parra, G., Sánchez-Cordero, V., and Sarkar, S. 2012. “Species Distribution Models and Ecological Suitability Analysis for Potential Tick Vectors of Lyme Disease in México.” Journal of Tropical Medicine 2012: Article ID 959101. DOI: 10.1155/2012/959101.



2011


Sarkar, S. 2011. “Sober on Intelligent Design.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 83: 683 -691.


Labay, B., Cohen, A. E., Sissel, B., Hendrickson, D. A., Martin, F. D., and Sarkar, S. 2011. “Assessing Historical Fish Community Composition Using Surveys, Historical Collection Data, and Species Distribution Models.” PLoS ONE 6 (9): e25145. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025145 .


Knight, A. T., Sarkar, S., Smith, R. J., Strange, N., and Wilson, K. A. 2011. “Engage the Hodgepodge: Management Factors Are Essential when Prioritizing Areas for Restoration and Conservation Action.” Diversity and Distributions 17: 1234 -1238.


Sarkar, S., Sánchez-Cordero, V. Illoldi-Rangel, P., Linaje, M., and Fuller, T. 2011. “Planeación sistemática de la conservación.” In Gío Argaez, R. and Rosales Hoz, M. T. L. Eds. Interacciones en el Planeta Tierra. México, D.F.: Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, UNAM, pp.  221 -229.


Sarkar, S. 2011. “Habitat Reconstruction: Moving Beyond Historical Fidelity.” In de Laplante, K., Brown, B., and Peacock, K. Eds. Handbook of the Philosophy of Science. Volume 11: Philosophy of Ecology. New York: Elsevier, pp. 327 -361.


Sarkar, S. 2011. “Drift and the Causes of Evolution.” In Illari, P. K., Russo, F., and Williamson, J. Eds. Causality in the Sciences. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 445 -469.


Vega Rivera, J. H., Ortega-Huerta, M. A., Sarkar, S., and Rappole, J. H. 2011.“Modeling the Potential Winter Distribution of the Endangered Black-capped Vireo (Vireo atricapilla).” Bird Conservation International 21: 92 -106.


Sarkar, S. and Montoya, M. 2011. “Beyond Parks and Reserves: The Ethics and Politics of Conservation with a Case Study from Perú.” Biological Conservation 144: 979 -988.


Sarkar, S. 2011. “The Science Question in Intelligent Design.” Synthese 178: 291 -305.



2010


Kelley, C. D., Lee, P. –F., Ding, T. –S., and Sarkar, S. 2010. “Biodiversity Conservation in an Urbanised Insular Landscape: Identifying Priority Areas for Bird Species in Taiwan.” Pacific Conservation Biology 16: 4 -19.


Sarkar, S., Strutz, S., Frank, D. M., Rivaldi, C. –L., Sissel, B., and Sánchez-Cordero, V. 2010. “Chagas Disease Risk in Texas.” PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 4 (10): e836. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000836.


Sarkar, S. 2010. “Climate Change and Disease Risk in the Himalayas.” Himalayan Journal of Science 6: 7 -8.


Sarkar, S. and Illoldi-Rangel, P. 2010. “Systematic Conservation Planning: An Updated Protocol.” Natureza & Conservação 8: 19 -26.


Ciarleglio, M., Barnes, J. W., and Sarkar, S. 2010 “ConsNet—A Tabu Search Approach to the Spatially Coherent Conservation Area Network Design Problem.” Journal of Heuristics 16: 537 –557.


Frank, D. M. and Sarkar, S. 2010. “Group Decisions in Biodiversity Conservation: Implications from Game Theory.” PLoS ONE 5 (5): e10688. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010688.


Zafra-Calvo, N., Cerro, R., Fuller, T., Lobo, J. M., Rodríguez, M. A., and Sarkar, S. 2010. “Prioritizing Areas for Conservation and Vegetation Restoration in Post—Agricultural Landscapes: A Biosphere Reserve plan for Bioko, Equatorial Guinea.” Biological Conservation 143: 787 -794.


Sarkar, S. 2010. “Diversity: A Philosophical Perspective.” Diversity 2: 127 -141.


González, C., Wang, O., Strutz, S., González-Salazar, C., Sánchez-Cordero, V., and Sarkar, S. 2010. “Climate Change and Risk of Leishmaniasis in North America: Predictions from Ecological Niche Models of Vector and Reservoir Species.” PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 4 (1): e585. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000585.



2009


Sánchez-Cordero, V., Illoldi-Rangel, P., Escalante, T., Figueroa, F., Rodríguez, G., Linaje, M., Fuller, T., and Sarkar, S. 2009. “Deforestation and Biodiversity Conservation in Mexico.” In Columbus, A. M. and L. Kuznetsov, L. Eds. Endangered Species: New Research. Hauppautge, NY: Nova Science Publishers, pp. 279 -297.


Sarkar, S. 2009. “Climate Change and the Prospects for Biodiversity Conservation in the Arctic.” The Circle 2009 (2):12 -13.


Sarkar, S., Fuller, T., Aggarwal, A., Moffett, A., and Kelley, C. D. 2009. “The ConsNet Software Platform for Systematic Conservation Planning.” In Moilanen, A., Possingham, H., and Wilson, K. Eds. Spatial Conservation Prioritization: Quantitative Methods and Computational Tools. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 235 -248.


Sarkar, S., Sánchez-Cordero, V., Londoño, M. C., and Fuller, T. 2009. “Systematic Conservation Assessment for the Mesoamerica, Chocó, and Tropical Andes Biodiversity Hotspots: A Preliminary Analysis.” Biodiversity and Conservation 18: 1793 -1828.


Levin, D. A., Kelley, C. D., and Sarkar, S. 2009. “Enhancement of Allee Effects in Plants due to Self-Incompatibility Alleles.” Journal of Ecology 97: 518 -527.


Ciarleglio, M., Barnes, J. W., and Sarkar, S. 2009. “ConsNet: New Software for the Selection of Conservation Area Networks with Spatial and Multi-Criteria Analyses.” Ecography 32: 205 -209.


Moffett, A., Strutz, S., Guda, N., González, C., Ferro, M. C., Sánchez-Cordero, V., and Sarkar, S. 2009. “A Global Public Database of Disease Vector and Reservoir Distributions.” PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 3 (3): e378. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000378.


Sarkar, S., Crews-Meyer, K., Young, K. R., Kelley, C. D., and Moffett, A. 2009. “A Dynamic Graph Automata Approach to Modeling Landscape Change in the Andes and the Amazon.” Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 36: 300 -318.


Sarkar, S. 2009. “Habitat Loss.” In Callicott, J. B. and Frodeman, R. Eds. Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy. Vol. 1. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, pp. 479 -482.


Sarkar, S. 2009. “Conservation Biology.” In Callicott, J. B. and Frodeman, R. Eds. Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy. Vol. 1. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, pp. 175 -179.


Sarkar, S. 2009. “Biodiversity.” In Callicott, J. B. and Frodeman, R. Eds. Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy. Vol. 1. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, pp. 104 -109.



2008


Sánchez-Cordero, V., Stockwell, D. B., Sarkar, S., Wang, H., Stephens, C. R., and  Giménez, J. 2008. “Competitive Interactions between Felid Species May Limit the Southern Distribution of Bobcats Lynx rufus.” Ecography 31: 757 -764.


Sarkar, S. 2008. “The Cost of Postponing Conservation Planning and Implementation.” Current Conservation 2 (1): 6 -7.


Sarkar, S. 2008. “Norms and the Conservation of Biodiversity.” Resonance 13: 627 -637.


Fuller, T., Morton, D. P., and Sarkar, S. 2008. “Incorporating Uncertainty about Species’ Potential Distributions under Climate Change into the Selection of Conservation Areas with a Case Study from the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska.” Biological Conservation 141: 1547 -1559.


Justus, J., Fuller, T., and Sarkar, S. 2008. “Influence of Representation Targets on the Total Area of Conservation Area Networks.” Conservation Biology 22: 673 -682.


Illoldi-Rangel, P., Fuller, T., Linaje, M., Pappas, C., Sánchez-Cordero, V., and Sarkar, S. 2008. “Solving the Maximum Representation Problem to Prioritize Areas for the Conservation of Terrestrial Mammals at Risk in Oaxaca.” Diversity and Distributions 14: 493 -508.


Sarkar, S. 2008. “Reduction.” In Psillos, S. and Curd, M. Eds. The Routledge Companion to the Philosophy of Science. London: Routledge, pp. 425 -434.

  • Reprinted in Psillos, S. and Curd, M. Eds. 2013. The Routledge Companion to the Philosophy of Science. 2nd. Ed. London: Routledge, pp. 479 -489.

Sarkar, S. 2008. “Wallace and Natural Selection, 1858.” Resonance 13: 236 -244.


Sarkar, S. 2008. “A Note on Frequency-Dependence and the Levels/ Units of Selection.” Biology and Philosophy 23: 217 -228.


Sarkar, S. 2008. “Genomics, Proteomics, and Beyond.” In Sarkar, S. and Plutynski, A. Eds. The Blackwell Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 58 -73.


Sarkar, S. and Plutynski, A. 2008. “Introduction.” In Sarkar, S. and Plutynski, A. Eds. The Blackwell Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. xviii -xxvi.


Sánchez-Cordero, V., Illoldi-Rangel,  P., Linaje, M., Fuller, T., and Sarkar, S. 2008. “Por qué hay un costo en posponer la conservación de la diversidad biologica en México.” Biodiversitas 76: 7 -12.


Fuller, T., Morton, D. P., and  Sarkar, S. 2008. “Planning for Biodiversity Conservation Using Stochastic Programming.” In Deutsch, A., Bravo de la Parra, R., de Boer, R., Diekmann, O., Jagers, P., Kisdi, E., Kretschmar, M., Lansky, P., and Metz, H. Eds. Mathematical Modeling of Biological Systems. Vol. 2. Boston: Birkhäuser,  pp. 102 -107.



2007


Sarkar, S. 2007. “Environmental Management in the Himalayas Requires Creation of a Database with Collaborative Public Sharing of Data.” Himalayan Journal of Sciences 4: 7 -8.


Sarkar, S. Mayfield, M., Cameron, S., Fuller, T., and Garson, J. 2007. “Conservation Area Networks for the Indian Region: Systematic Methods and Future Prospects.” Himalayan Journal of Sciences 4: 27 -40.


Sarkar, S. 2007. “Genetic Determinism.” In Gomart, E. Ed. Genesis: Life at the End of the Information Age. Utrecht: Centraal Museum, pp. 50 -51.


Sarkar, S. 2007. “Enviromental Ethics: Tempered Anthropocentrism and Biodiversity Conservation.” In Parkan, B. Ed. II. Ulusal Uygulamali Etik Kongresi Bildiriler Kitabi. Ankara: Kamu Gorevlileri Etik Kurulu, pp.39 -46.


Pawar, S., Koo, M., Kelley, C., Ahmed, M. F., Choudhury, S., and  Sarkar, S.  2007. “Conservation Assessment and Prioritization of Areas in Northeast India: Priorities for Amphibians and Reptiles.” Biological Conservation 136: 346 -361.

  • Biological Conservation Highly Cited Author Award, 2007 -2010.

Moffett, A., Shackelford, N., and  Sarkar, S. 2007. “Malaria in Africa: Vector Species’ Niche Models and Relative Risk Maps.” PLoS ONE 2 (9): e824. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000824.


Sarkar, S. 2007. “Haldane and the Emergence of Modern Evolutionary Theory.” In Matthen, M. and Stephens, C. Eds. Handbook of the Philosophy of Science. Volume 3: Philosophy of Biology. New York: Elsevier, pp. 49 -86.


Fuller, T., Sánchez-Cordero, V., Illoldi-Rangel P., Linaje, M., and  Sarkar, S. 2007. “The Cost of Postponing Biodiversity Conservation in Mexico.” Biological Conservation 134: 593 –600.


Sarkar, S. 2007. “From Ecological Diversity to Biodiversity.” In Hull, D. L. and Ruse, M. Eds. The Cambridge Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 388 -409.



2006


Fuller, T., Munguía, M., Mayfield, M., Sánchez-Cordero, V., and Sarkar, S. 2006. “Incorporating Connectivity into Conservation Planning: A Multi-Criteria Case Study from Central Mexico.” Biological Conservation 133: 131 -142.


Sarkar, S., Pressey, R. L., Faith, D. P., Margules, C. R., Fuller, T., Stoms, D. M., Moffett, A., Wilson, K., Williams, K. J., Williams, P. H., and Andelman, S. 2006. “Biodiversity Conservation Planning Tools: Present Status and Challenges for the Future.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 31: 123 -159.


Sarkar, S. 2006. “Ecological Diversity and Biodiversity as Concepts for Conservation Planning.” Acta Biotheoretica 54: 133 -140.


Sarkar, S. 2006. “From Genes as Determinants to DNA as Resource: Historical Notes on Development and Genetics.” In Neumann-Held, E. and Rehmann-Sutter, C. Eds. Genes in Development: Re-Reading the Molecular Paradigm. Durham: Duke University Press, pp. 77 -95.

  • Extended version reprinted in Sarkar, S. 2005. Molecular Models of Life: Philosophical Essays on Molecular Biology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Moffett, A., Dyer, J. S., and Sarkar, S. 2006. “Integrating Biodiversity Representation with Multiple Criteria in North-Central Namibia Using Non-Dominated Alternatives and a Modified Analytic Hierarchy Process.” Biological Conservation 129: 181 -191.


Fuller, T. and Sarkar, S. 2006. “LQGraph: A Software Package for Optimizing Connectivity in Conservation Planning.” Environmental Modelling and Software 21: 750 -755.


Moffett, A. and Sarkar, S. 2006. “Incorporating Multiple Criteria into the Design of Conservation Area Networks: A Minireview with Recommendations.” Diversity and Distributions 12: 125 -137.


Pfeifer, J. and Sarkar, S. 2006. “Introduction.” In Sarkar, S. and Pfeifer, J. Eds. The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia. New York: Routledge, pp. xi -xxv.


Sarkar, S. 2006. “Scientific Change.” In Sarkar, S. and Pfeifer, J. Eds. The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia. New York: Routledge, pp. 729 -732.


Wimsatt, W. C. and Sarkar, S. 2006. “Reductionism.” In Sarkar, S. and Pfeifer, J. Eds. The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia. New York: Routledge, pp. 696 -703.


Sarkar, S. 2006. “Molecular Biology.” In Sarkar, S. and Pfeifer, J. Eds. The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia. New York: Routledge, pp. 480 -489.


Falk, R. and Sarkar, S. 2006. “Genetics.” In Sarkar, S. and Pfeifer, J. Eds. The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia. New York: Routledge, pp. 330 -339.


Sarkar, S. 2006. “Carnap, Rudolf.” In Sarkar, S. and Pfeifer, J. Eds. The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia. New York: Routledge, pp. 79 -89.


Sarkar, S. 2006. “Ecology.” In Zalta, E. N. Ed. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2006 Edition). URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2006/entries/ecology/&gt;.



2005


Sarkar, S. 2005. “Maynard Smith, Optimization, and Evolution. ”Biology and Philosophy 20: 951 -966.


Sarkar, S. 2005. “In Memoriam: Ernst Mayr, 1904 -2005.” Journal of Biosciences 30: 415 -418.


Sánchez-Cordero, V., Illoldi-Rangel, P., Linaje, M., Peterson, A. T., and Sarkar, S. 2005. “Deforestation and Extant Distributions of Mexican Endemic Mammals.” Biological Conservation 126: 465 -473.


Moffett, A., Garson, J., and Sarkar, S. 2005. “MultCSync: A Software Package for Incorporating Multiple Criteria in Conservation Planning,” Environmental Modelling and Software 20: 1315 -1322.


Sarkar, S., Justus, J., Fuller, T., Kelley, C., Garson, J., and Mayfield, M. 2005. “Effectiveness of Environmental Surrogates for the Selection of Conservation Area Networks.” Conservation Biology 19: 815 -825.

  • Selection of Faculty of 1000 Biology.

Fuller, T., Sarkar, S., and  Crews, D. P. 2005. “The Use of Norms of Reaction to Analyze Genotypic and Environmental Influences on Behavior in Mice and Rats.” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 29: 445 -456.


Sánchez-Cordero, V., Cirelli, V., Munguía, M., and Sarkar, S. 2005. “Place Prioritization for Biodiversity Representation Using Species’ Ecological Niche Modeling.” Biodiversity Informatics 2: 11 -23.



2004


Sarkar, S. 2004. “Evolutionary Theory in the 1920s: The Nature of the ‘Synthesis.’” Philosophy of Science 71: 1215 -1226.


Sarkar, S. and Garson, J. 2004. “Multiple Criterion Synchronization for Conservation Area Network Design: The Use of Non-Dominated Alternative Sets.” Conservation and Society 2: 433 -448.


Sarkar, S., Moffett, A., Sierra, R., Fuller, T., Garson, J., and Cameron, S. 2004. “Incorporating Multiple Criteria into the Design of Conservation Area Networks.” Endangered Species Update 21: 100 -108.


Sarkar, S. 2004. “Conservation Biology.” In Zalta, E. N. Ed. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2004 Edition). URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2004/entries/conservation-biology/&gt;.


Sarkar, S., Pappas, C., Garson, J., Aggarwal, A., and Cameron, S. 2004. “Place Prioritization for Biodiversity Conservation Using Probabilistic Surrogate Distribution Data.” Diversity and Distributions 10: 125 -133.


Sarkar, S. 2004. “Genes Encode Information for Phenotypic Traits.” In Hitchcock, C. Ed. Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Science. Malden: Blackwell, pp. 259 -274.

  • Extended version reprinted in Sarkar, S. 2005. Molecular Models of Life: Philosophical Essays on Molecular Biology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Sarkar, S. 2004. “From the Reaktionsnorm to the Evolution of Adaptive Plasticity: A Historical Sketch, 1909 -1999.” In DeWitt, T. and Scheiner,  S. M. Eds. Phenotypic Plasticity: Functional and Conceptual Approaches. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 10 -30.



2003


Sarkar, S. 2003. “Conservation Area Networks,” Conservation and Society 1 (2): v –vii.


Jaeger, G. and Sarkar, S. 2003. “Coherence, Entanglement, and Reductionist Explanation in Quantum Physics.” In Ashtekar, A., Cohen, R. S., Howard, D., Renn, J., Sarkar, S., and Shimony, A. Eds. Revisiting the Foundations of Relativistic Physics: Festschrift in Honor of John Stachel. Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 523 -542.


Sarkar, S. 2003. “Husserl’s Role in Carnap’s Der Raum.” In Bok, T. Ed. Language, Truth and Knowledge: Contributions to the Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap. Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 179 -190.


Sarkar, S. 2003. “Complex Genetic Systems and Diseases.” In Cooper, D. N. Ed. Nature Encyclopedia of the Human Genome, Vol. 1. London: Macmillan, pp. 927 -929.


Garson, J., Wang, L., and Sarkar, S. 2003. “How Development May Direct Evolution.” Biology and Philosophy 18: 353 -370.


Sarkar, S. and Robert, J. S. 2003. “Introduction.” Biology and Philosophy 18: 209 -217.


Voss, J. and Sarkar, S. 2003. “Depictions as Surrogates for Places: From Wallace’s Biogeography to Koch’s Dioramas.” Philosophy & Geography 6: 60 -81.


Sarkar, S. and Fuller, T. 2003. “Generalized Norms of Reaction for Ecological Developmental Biology.” Evolution & Development 5: 106 -115.



2002


Laubichler, M. and Sarkar, S. 2002. “Flies, Genes, and Brains: Oskar Vogt, Nikolai Timoféeff-Ressovsky, and the Origin of the Concepts of Penetrance and Expressivity.” In Parker, L. S. and Ankeny, R. Eds. Mutating Concepts, Evolving Disciplines: Genetics, Medicine, and Society. Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 63 -85.


Kelley, C., Garson, J., Aggarwal, A., and Sarkar, S. 2002. “Place Prioritization for Biodiversity Reserve Network Design: A Comparison of the SITES and ResNet Software Packages for Coverage and Efficiency.” Diversity and Distributions 8: 297 -306.


Sarkar, S. 2002. “Haldane, J. B. S.” In Pagel, M. Ed. Encyclopedia of Evolution, Vol. 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 455 -456.


Justus, J. and Sarkar, S. 2002. “The Principle of Complementarity in the Design of Reserve Networks to Conserve Biodiversity: A Preliminary History.” Journal of Biosciences 27 (S2): 421 –435.


Garson, J., Aggarwal, A., and Sarkar, S. 2002. “Birds as Surrogates for Biodiversity: An Analysis of a Data Set from Southern Québec.” Journal of Biosciences 27 (S2): 347 -360.


Sarkar, S., Aggarwal, A., Garson, J., Margules, C. R., and Zeidler, J. 2002. “Place Prioritization for Biodiversity Content.” Journal of Biosciences 27 (S2): 339 -346.

  • Reprinted in Varma, R. V., Bhat, K. V., Muralidharan, E. M. Eds. 2001. Tropical Forestry Research: Challenges in the New Millennium. Peechi: Kerala Forest Research Institute, pp. 26 –31.

Sarkar, S. and Margules, C. R. 2002. “Operationalizing Biodiversity for Conservation Planning.” Journal of Biosciences 27 (S2): 299 -308.


Sarkar, S. 2002. “Preface: Conservation Biology: The New Consensus,” Journal of Biosciences 27 (S2): i –iv.


Sarkar, S. 2002. “Genes versus Molecules: How to, and How Not to, Be a Reductionist.” In van Regenmortel, M. and Hull, D. L. Eds. Promises and Limits of Reductionism in Biomedical Sciences. New York: Wiley, pp. 191 –206.

  • Reprinted in Sarkar, S. 2005. Molecular Models of Life: Philosophical Essays on Molecular Biology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Sarkar, S. 2002. “Defining ‘Biodiversity’; Assessing Biodiversity.” Monist 85: 131 –155.


Sarkar, S. 2001. “Rudolf Carnap (1891 -1970).” In Martinich, A. P. and Sosa, D., Eds. A Companion to Analytic Philosophy. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, pp. 94 -109.



2001


Sarakinos, H., Nicholls, A. O., Tubert, A., Aggarwal, A., Margules, C. R., and Sarkar, S. 2001. “Area Prioritization for Biodiversity Conservation in Québec on the Basis of Species Distributions: A Preliminary Analysis.” Biodiversity and Conservation 10: 1419 -1472.


Sarkar, S. 2001. “Reduction: A Philosophical Analysis.” In Robertson, S. Ed. Nature Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, Vol. 16. London: Nature Publishing Group, pp. 109 -113 (http://www.els.net/  [doi:10.1038/npg.els.0003460] ).

  • Reprinted in Sarkar, S. 2005. Molecular Models of Life: Philosophical Essays on Molecular Biology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Sarkar, S. 2001. “Reductionism in Genetics and the Human Genome Project.” In Singh, R., Krimbas, C., Paul, D. B., and Beatty, J. Eds. Thinking about Evolution: Historical, Philosophical, and Political Perspectives. Vol. 2. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 235 -252.



2000


Sarkar, S., Parker, N. C., Garson, J., Aggarwal, A., and Haskell, S. 2000. “Place Prioritization for Texas Using GAP Data: The Use of Biodiversity and Environmental Surrogates within Socioeconomic Constraints.” Gap Analysis Program Bulletin 9: 48 -50.


Gilbert, S. and Sarkar, S. 2000. “Embracing Complexity: Organicism for the 21st Century.” Developmental Dynamics 219: 1 -9.


Sarkar, S. 2000. “Physical Approximations and Stochastic Processes in Einstein’s 1905 Paper on Brownian Motion.” In Howard, D. and Stachel, J. Eds. Einstein: The Formative Years. Boston: Birkhäuser, pp. 203 -229.


Sarkar, S. and Sher, I. 2000. “Loop Analysis of Feedback in Ecological Models.” In Toni, B. and Bulajich, R. Eds. Dynamical Roles of Feedback Circuits and Related Topics. Cuernavaca: UNA Humanidad Culta, pp. 52 -55.


Sarkar, S. 2000. “Information in Genetics and Developmental Biology: Comments on Maynard Smith,” Philosophy of Science 67: 208 -213.

  • Reprinted in Sarkar, S. 2005. Molecular Models of Life: Philosophical Essays on Molecular Biology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.


1999


Sarkar, S. 1999. “Delusions about IQ.” Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive 18: 224 -231.


Sarkar, S. 1999. “From the Reaktionsnorm to the Adaptive Norm: The Norm of Reaction, 1909 -1960.” Biology and Philosophy 14: 235 -252.


Sarkar, S. and Stachel, J. 1999. “Did Malament Prove the Non-Conventionality of Simultaneity in the Special Theory of Relativity?” Philosophy of Science 66: 208 -220.

  • Also published as Max-Planck-Institut für Wissenschaftsgeschichte Preprint 75.

Sarkar, S. 1999. “Wilderness Preservation and Biodiversity Conservation—Keeping Divergent Goals Distinct.” BioScience 49: 405 -412.

  • Reprinted in Callicott, J. B. and Nelson, M. P. Eds. 2008. The Wilderness Debate Rages On: Continuing the Great New Wilderness Debate. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, pp. 231 -251.

Thiéffry, D. and Sarkar, S. 1999. “Postgenomics? An Interdisciplinary Conference at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science in Berlin.” BioScience 49: 223 -227.

  • Also published in Max-Planck-Institut für Wissenschaftsgeschichte Preprint 110.


1998


Sarkar, S. 1998. “Restoring Wilderness or Reclaiming Forests?” Terra Nova 3(3): 35 -52.

  • Reprinted in Rothenberg, D. and Ulvaeus, M. Eds. 2001. The World and the Wild. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, pp. 37 -55.
  • Translated and reprinted as “Restaurando o Mundo Selvagem” in Diegues, A. C. Ed. 2000. Etnoconservação. São Paolo: Hucitec, pp. 47 -66.

Thiéffry, D. and Sarkar, S. 1998. “Forty Years under the Central Dogma.” Trends in Biochemical Sciences 32: 312 -316.

  • Reprinted in Witkowski, J. Ed. 2005. The Inside Story: DNA to RNA to Protein. Cold Spring Harbor: Cold Spring Harbor Press, pp. 331 -343.

Sarkar, S. 1998. “Symbiosis in Evolution.” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences  29: 211 -218.

Sarkar, S. 1998. “Wallace’s Belated Revival.” Journal of Biosciences 23: 3 -7.



1997


Sarkar, S. 1997. “The Itô Formalism and Stochastic Modifications of Quantum Dynamics.” In Cohen, R. S., Horne, M. and Stachel, J. Eds. Experimental Metaphysics: Quantum Mechanical Studies in Honor of Abner Shimony. Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 157 -169.



1996


Sarkar, S. 1996. “Decoding ‘Coding’: Information and DNA,” BioScience 46: 857 -863.

  • Reprinted in S—European Journal of Semiotic Studies 9: 277 -298 (1997).
  • Reprinted in Sarkar, S. 2005. Molecular Models of Life: Philosophical Essays on Molecular Biology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Sarkar, S. 1996. “Form and Function in the Molecularization of Biology.” In Tauber, A. I. Ed. Aesthetics and Science: The Elusive Synthesis. Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 153 -168.

  • Reprinted in Sarkar, S. 2005. Molecular Models of Life: Philosophical Essays on Molecular Biology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Sarkar, S. 1996. “Biological Information: A Skeptical Look at Some Central Dogmas of Molecular Biology.” In Sarkar, S., Ed. The Philosophy and History of Molecular Biology: New Perspectives. Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 187 -231.

  • Reprinted in Sarkar, S. 2005. Molecular Models of Life: Philosophical Essays on Molecular Biology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Sarkar, S. 1996. “Philosophy, History, and Molecular Biology–Introduction.” In Sarkar, S., Ed. The Philosophy and History of Molecular Biology: New Perspectives. Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 1 -13.


Sarkar, S. 1996. “Introduction.”  In Sarkar, S. Ed. Science and Philosophy in the Twentieth Century: Basic Works of Logical Empiricism. Vol. 1. The Emergence of Logical Empiricism: From 1900 to the Vienna Circle. New York: Garland, pp. xv –xviii.


Sarkar, S. 1996. “Introduction.”  In Sarkar, S. Ed. Science and Philosophy in the Twentieth Century: Basic Works of Logical Empiricism. Vol. 2. Logical Empiricism at Its Peak: Schlick, Carnap, and Neurath. New York: Garland, pp. xv –xviii.


Sarkar, S. 1996. “Introduction.”  In Sarkar, S. Ed. Science and Philosophy in the Twentieth Century: Basic Works of Logical Empiricism. Vol. 3. Logic, Probability, and Epistemology: The Power of Semantics. New York: Garland, pp. xv –xix.


Sarkar, S. 1996. “Introduction.”  In Sarkar, S. Ed. Science and Philosophy in the Twentieth Century: Basic Works of Logical Empiricism. Vol. 4 . Logical Empiricism and the Special Sciences: Reichenbach, Feigl, and Nagel. New York: Garland, pp. xv –xviii.


Sarkar, S. 1996. “Introduction.”  In Sarkar, S. Ed. Science and Philosophy in the Twentieth Century: Basic Works of Logical Empiricism. Vol. 5 . Decline and Obsolescence of Logical Empiricism: Carnap vs. Quine and the Critics. New York: Garland, pp. xv –xix.


Sarkar, S. 1996. “Introduction.”  In Sarkar, S. Ed. Science and Philosophy in the Twentieth Century: Basic Works of Logical Empiricism. Vol. 6 . The Legacy of the Vienna Circle: Modern Reappraisals. New York: Garland, pp. xv –xix.


Sarkar, S. 1996. “Series Introduction.”  In Sarkar, S. Ed. Science and Philosophy in the Twentieth Century: Basic Works of Logical Empiricism. Vol. 1. The Emergence of Logical Empiricism: From 1900 to the Vienna Circle. New York: Garland, pp. vii – xiv.

  • Also in Sarkar, S. Ed. Science and Philosophy in the Twentieth Century: Basic Works of Logical Empiricism. Vol. 2. Logical Empiricism at Its Peak: Schlick, Carnap, and Neurath. New York: Garland, pp. vii -xiv.
  • Also in Sarkar, S. Ed. Science and Philosophy in the Twentieth Century: Basic Works of Logical Empiricism. Vol. 3. Logic, Probability, and Epistemology: The Power of Semantics. New York: Garland, pp. vii -xiv
  • Also in Sarkar, S. Ed. Science and Philosophy in the Twentieth Century: Basic Works of Logical Empiricism. Vol. 4 . Logical Empiricism and the Special Sciences: Reichenbach, Feigl, and Nagel. New York: Garland, pp. vii -xiv.
  • Also in Sarkar, S. Ed. Science and Philosophy in the Twentieth Century: Basic Works of Logical Empiricism. Vol. 5 . Decline and Obsolescence of Logical Empiricism: Carnap vs. Quine and the Critics. New York: Garland, pp. vii -xiv
  • Also in Sarkar, S. Ed. Science and Philosophy in the Twentieth Century: Basic Works of Logical Empiricism. Vol. 6 . The Legacy of the Vienna Circle: Modern Reappraisals. New York: Garland, pp. vii -xiv.

Sarkar, S. 1996. “Lancelot Hogben, 1895 -1975.” Genetics 142: 655 -660.

  • Reprinted in Crow, J. F. and Dove, W. F. Eds. 2000. Perspectives on Genetics. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, pp. 506 -511.

Sarkar, S. 1996. “Ecological Theory and Anuran Declines,” BioScience  46: 199 -207.


Jaeger, G., Viger, C., and  Sarkar, S. 1996. “Bell-type Equalities for SQUIDs on the Assumptions of Macroscopic Realism and Non-Invasive Measurability,” Physics Letters A  210: 5 -10.


Asteris, G. and Sarkar, S. 1996. “Bayesian Procedures for the Estimation of Mutation Rates from Fluctuation Experiments.” Genetics 142: 313 –326.



1995


Jaeger, G. and Sarkar, S. 1995. “On the Distribution of Bacterial Mutants: The Effects of Differential Fitness of Mutants and Non-Mutants.” Genetica 96: 217 -223.


Sarkar, S. 1995. “J. B. S. Haldane and R. A. Fisher‘s Draft Life of Karl Pearson.” Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 49: 119 -124.



1994


Williams, S. M. and Sarkar, S. 1994. “Assortative Mating and the Adaptive Landscape.” Evolution 48: 868 -875.


Lachmann-Tarkhanov, M. and Sarkar, S. 1994. “The Alternative Fitness Sets Which Preserve Allele Trajectories.” Genetics  138: 1323 -1330.


Sarkar, S. 1994. “The Selection of Alleles and the Additivity of Variance.” In Hull, D. L., Forbes, M., and Burian, R. M. Eds. PSA – 1994: Proceedings of the 1994 Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association. Vol. 1. East Lansing: Philosophy of Science Association, pp. 3 -12.



1993


Tauber, A. I. and Sarkar, S. 1993. “The Ideology of the Human Genome Project.” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 86: 537 -540.


Sarkar, S. 1993. “Beyond Neo-Darwinism: The Challenge of Directed Mutations.” Philosophical Studies from the University of Tampere 50: 69 -84.



1992


Sarkar, S. 1992. “Neo-Darwinism and the Problem of Directed Mutations.” Evolutionary Trends in Plants 6: 73 -79.

  • Reprinted in Sarkar, S. 2005. Molecular Models of Life: Philosophical Essays on Molecular Biology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Sarkar, S. 1992. “Haldane and the Emergence of Theoretical Population Genetics.” Journal of Genetics 71: 73 -79 (1992).


Sarkar, S. 1992. “Para qué sirve el proyecto Genoma Humano.” La Jornada Semanal 180: 29 -39.


Falk, R. and Sarkar, S. 1992. “Harmony from Discord.” Biology and Philosophy 7: 463 -472.


Sarkar, S. 1992. “Science, Philosophy, and Politics in the Work of J. B. S. Haldane, 1922 -1937.” Biology and Philosophy 7: 385 -409.


Sarkar, S. 1992. “’The Boundless Ocean of Infinite Possibilities’: Logic in Carnap’s Logical Syntax of Language.” Synthese 93: 191 -237.

  • Reprinted in Sarkar, S., Ed. 1996. Science and Philosophy in the Twentieth Century: Basic Works of Logical Empiricism. Volume 5: Decline and Obsolescence of Logical Empiricism: Carnap vs. Quine and the Critics. New York: Garland Publishing, pp. 355 -401.

Sarkar, S. 1992. “Rudolf Carnap, 1891 -1970,” Synthese 93: 1 -14.


Sarkar, S. 1992. “A Centenary Reassessment of J. B. S. Haldane, 1892 -1964.” BioScience 42: 777 -785.


Sarkar, S. 1992. “Haldane as Biochemist: the Cambridge Decade, 1923 -1932.” In Sarkar, S. Ed. The Founders of Evolutionary Genetics. Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 53 -81.


Sarkar, S. 1992. “The Founders of Theoretical Evolutionary Genetics.” In Sarkar, S. Ed. The Founders of Evolutionary Genetics. Dordrecht: Kluwer,  pp. 1 -22.


Sarkar, S., Ma, W. T., and Sandri, G. v. 1992. “On Fluctuation Analysis: A New, Simple and Efficient Method for Computing the Expected Number of Mutants.” Genetica 85: 173 -179.


Ma, W. T., Sandri, G. v., and Sarkar, S. 1992. “Analysis of the Luria-Delbrück Distribution Using Discrete Convolution Powers.” Journal of Applied Probability 29: 255 -267.


Sarkar, S. 1992. “Sex, Disease and Evolution: Variations on a Theme from J. B. S. Haldane.” BioScience 42: 448 -454.


Sarkar, S. 1992. “Models of Reduction and Categories of Reductionism,” Synthese 91: 167 -194.

  • Reprinted in Sarkar, S. 2005. Molecular Models of Life: Philosophical Essays on Molecular Biology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Aggarwal, A., Ma, W. T., Sandri, G. vH., and Sarkar, S. 1992. “Adaptive Graph Computations with a Connection Machine.” in Prasanna, V. K. and Canter, L. H. Eds. Proceedings of the Sixth International Parallel Processing Symposium. Washington: IEEE Computer Society Press, pp. 18 -21.


Aggarwal, A. and Sarkar, S. 1992. “On the Evolution of Complex Genomes: Adaptive Graph Computations with a CM-2 Connection Machine.” In Berghel, H., Deaton, E., Hedrick, G., Roach, D., and Wainwright, R. Eds. Applied Computing: Technological Challenges of the 1990’s. New York: ACM Press, pp. 798 -807.


Tauber, A. I. and Sarkar, S. 1992. “The Human Genome Project: Has Blind Reductionism Gone Too Far?” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 35: 220 -235.



1991


Falk, R. and Sarkar, S. 1991. “The Real Objective of Mendel’s Paper: A Response


Sarkar, S. 1991. “What is Life? Revisited.” BioScience 41: 631 -634.


Sarkar, S. 1991. “Lamarck contre Darwin, Reduction versus Statistics: Conceptual Issues in the Controversy over Directed Mutagenesis in Bacteria.” In Tauber, A. I. Ed. Organism and the Origins of Self. Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 235 -271.

  • Reprinted in Sarkar, S. 2005. Molecular Models of Life: Philosophical Essays on Molecular Biology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Sarkar, S. 1991. “Reductionism and Functional Explanation in Molecular Biology.” Uroboros 1(1): 67 -94.

  • Abstract in Russian in Referativnii Jurnal Biologia 4: 6 (1993).
  • Reprinted in Sarkar, S. 2005. Molecular Models of Life: Philosophical Essays on Molecular Biology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Ma, W. T., Sandri, G. v., and Sarkar, S. 1991. “Novel Representation of Exponential Functions of Power Series Which Arise in Statistical Mechanics and Population Genetics.” Physics Letters A 155: 103 -106.


Sarkar, S. 1991. “Haldane’s Solution of the Luria-Delbrück Distribution.” Genetics  127: 257 -261.

  • Reprinted in Crow, J. F. and Dove, W. F. Eds. 2000. Perspectives on Genetics. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, pp. 199 -203.


1990


Sarkar, S. 1990. “On the Possibility of Directed Mutations in Bacteria: Statistical Analyses and Reductionist Strategies.”  In  Fine, A., Forbes, M. and Wessels, L. Eds., PSA 1990: Proceedings of the 1990 Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association. Vol. 1. East Lansing: Philosophy of Science Association, pp. 111 -124.


Sarkar, S. 1990. “On Adaptation: A Reduction of the Kauffman-Levin Model to a Problem in Graph Theory and Its Consequences.” Biology and Philosophy 5: 127 -148.



1988


Sarkar, S. 1988. “Natural Selection, Hypercycles and the Origin of Life.” in Fine, A. and Leplin, J. Eds. PSA 1988: Proceedings of the 1988 Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association. Vol. 1. East Lansing: Philosophy of Science Association, pp. 197 -206.

  • Reprinted in Sarkar, S. 2005. Molecular Models of Life: Philosophical Essays on Molecular Biology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Sarkar, S. 1988. “Black Politics in South Africa: Ideological Aspects of the Liberation Struggle.” Nature, Society, and Thought 1: 201 -220.



1980


Sarkar, S. 1980. “On the Concept of Elementarity in Particle Physics.” Columbia Journal of Ideas 5 (3): 93 -129.


Sarkar, S. 1980. “Geometry in Physics.” Columbia Journal of Ideas 5 (1): 30 -45.



1979


Sarkar, S. and Godfrey, G. 1979. “Quark Search with Crystal Ball on SPEAR at SLAC.” In Llamas, V. Ed. Proceedings of the Summer Science Program. Stanford: Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, pp. 1 -13.